With the help particularly of Bryan Donkin, a skilled and ingenious mechanic, an improved version of the Robert original was installed at Frogmore Mill, Apsley, Hertfordshire, in 1803, followed by another in 1804. A third machine was installed at the Fourdriniers’ own mill at Two Waters. The Fourdriniers also bought a mill at St Neots intending to install two machines there and the process and machines continued to develop.
Thomas Gilpin is most often credited for creating the first U.S cylinder type papermaking machine at Brandywine Creek, Delaware in 1817. This machine was also developed in England, but it was a cylinder mould machine. The Fourdrinier machine wasn’t introduced into the USA until 1827.
However, records show Charles Kinsey of Patterson, NJ had already patented a continuous process papermaking machine in 1807. Kinsey’s machine was built locally by Daniel Sawn and by 1809 the Kinsey machine was successfully making paper at the Essex Mill in Paterson. Financial stress and potential opportunities created by the Embargo of 1807 eventually persuaded Kinsey and his backers to change the mill’s focus from paper to cotton and Kinsey’s early papermaking successes were soon overlooked and forgotten.
Gilpin’s 1817 patent was similar to Kinsey’s, as was the John Ames patent of 1822. The Ames patent was challenged by his competitors, asserting that Kinsey was the original inventor and Ames had been pilfering other peoples’ ideas, their evidence being the employment of Daniel Sawn to work on his machine.
The method of continuous production demonstrated by the paper machine influenced the development of continuous rolling of iron and later steel and other continuous production processes.